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2019年雅思阅读理解精选试题及答案
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时间:2020-06-18
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SellingDigitalMusicwithoutCopy-protectionMakesSense

A. Itwasuncharacteristicallylow-keyfortheindustry’sgreatestshowman.ButtheessaypublishedthisweekbySteveJobs,thebossofApple,onhisfirm’swebsiteundertheunassumingtitle“ThoughtsonMusic”hasnonethelessprovokedavigorousdebateaboutthefutureofdigitalmusic,whichAppledominateswithitsiPodmusic-playerandiTunesmusic-store.Atissueis“digitalrightsmanagement”(DRM)—thetechnologyguardingdownloadedmusicagainsttheft.SincethereisnocommonstandardforDRM,italsohastheside-effectthatsongspurchasedforonetypeofmusic-playermaynotworkonanother.Apple’sDRMsystem,calledFairPlay,isthemostwidespread.SoitcameasasurprisewhenMr.JobscalledforDRMfordigitalmusictobeabolished.

B. ThisisachangeoftackforApple.IthascomeunderfirefromEuropeanregulatorswhoclaimthatitsrefusaltolicenseFairPlaytootherfirmshas“lockedin”customers.SincemusicfromtheiTunesstorecannotbeplayedonnon-iPodmusic-players(atleastnotwithoutalotoffiddling),anyiTunesbuyerwillbedeterredfromswitchingtoadevicemadebyarivalfirm,suchasSonyorMicrosoft.WhenFrenchlawmakersdraftedabilllastyearcompellingAppletoopenupFairPlaytorivals,thecompanywarnedof“state-sponsoredpiracy”.OnlyDRM,itimplied,couldkeepthepiratesatbay.

C. ThisweekMr.JobsgaveanotherexplanationforhisformerdefenceofDRM:therecordcompaniesmadehimdoit.TheywouldmaketheirmusicavailabletotheiTunesstoreonlyifAppleagreedtoprotectitusingDRM.TheycanstillwithdrawtheircataloguesiftheDRMsystemiscompromised.ApplecannotlicenseFairPlaytoothers,saysMrJobs,becauseitwoulddependonthemtoproducesecurityfixespromptly.AllDRMdoesisrestrictconsumerchoiceandprovideabarriertoentry,saysMrJobs;withoutittherewouldbefarmorestoresandplayers,andfarmoreinnovation.So,hesuggests,whynotdoawaywithDRMandsellmusicunprotected?“Thisisclearlythebestalternativeforconsumers,”hedeclares,“andApplewouldembraceitinaheartbeat.”

D. Whythesuddenchangeofheart?MrJobsseemschieflyconcernedwithgettingEurope’sregulatorsoffhisback.RatherthancomplainingtoAppleaboutitsuseofDRM,hesuggests,“thoseunhappywiththecurrentsituationshouldredirecttheirenergiestowardspersuadingthemusiccompaniestoselltheirmusicDRM-free.”Twoandahalfofthefourbigrecordcompanies,hehelpfullypointsout,areEuropean-owned.MrJobsalsohopestopainthimselfasaconsumerchampion.AppleresentsaccusationsthatithasbecometheMicrosoftofdigitalmusic.

E. Applecanaffordtoembraceopencompetitioninmusicplayersandonlinestores.Consumerswouldgravitatetothebestplayerandthebeststore,andatthemomentthatstillmeansApple’s.MrJobsisevidentlyunfazedbyrivalstotheiPod.Sinceonly3%ofthemusicinatypicaliTuneslibraryisprotected,mostofitcanalreadybeusedonotherplayerstoday,henotes.(AndeventheprotectedtrackscanbeburnedontoaCDandthenre-ripped.)SoApple’sdominanceevidentlydependsfarmoreonbrandingandeaseofusethanDRM-related“lockin”.

F. ThemusicgiantsaretryingDRM-freedownloads.Lotsofsmallerlabelsalreadysellmusicthatway.Havingseenwhichwaythewindisblowing,MrJobsnowwantstobeseennotasDRM’sdefender,butasaconsumerchampionwhohelpedinitsdownfall.Wouldn’titleadtoasurgeinpiracy?No,becausemostmusicisstillsoldunprotectedonCDs,peoplewishingtostealmusicalreadycandoso.Indeed,scrappingDRMwouldprobablyincreaseonline-musicsalesbyreducingconfusionandincompatibility.Withtheleadingonlinestore,Applewouldbenefitmost.MrJobs’sargument,inshort,istransparentlyself-serving.Italsohappenstoberight.

NotestoReadingPassage1

1.low-key:

抑制的,受约束的,屈服的

2.showman:

开展览会的人,出风头的人物

3.unassuming:

谦逊的,不夸耀的,不装腔作势的

4.iPod:

(苹果公司出产的)音乐播放器

5.iTunesstore:

(苹果公司出产的)在线音乐商店

6.getoffperson’sback:

不再找某人的麻烦,摆脱某人的纠缠

7.gravitate:

受吸引,倾向于

8.unfazed:

不再担忧,不被打扰

Questions1-7

DothefollowingstatemetsreflecttheclaimsofthewriterinReadingPassage1?

WriteyouranswerinBoxes1-7onyouranswersheet.

TRUEifthestatementrefletstheclaimsofthewriter

FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheclaimsofthewriter

NOTGIVENifitisimpossbiletosaywhatthewriterthinksaboutthis

1.AppleenjoysacontrollingpositionindigitalmusicmarketwithitsiPodmusic-playerandiTunesmusic-store.

2.DRMisagovernmentdecreeissuedwithapurposetoprotectdownloadedmusicfromtheftbyconsumers.

3.LackofstandardizationinDRMmakessongsboughtforonekindofmusicplayermaynotfunctiononanother.

4.ApplehasbeencriticizedbyEuropeanregulatorssinceithasrefusedtograntalicenseFairPlaytootherfirms.

5.Allmusiccanbeeasilyplayedonnon-iPodmusicdevicesfromSonyorMicrosoftwithouttoomuchfiddling.

6.AppledependsfarmoreonDRMratherthanbrandingforitsdominanceofthedigitalmusicdevices.

7.IfDRMwascancelled,Sonywouldcertainlydominatetheinternationaldigitalmusicmarket.

Questions8-10

ChoosetheappropriatelettersA-Dandwritetheminboxes8-10onyouranswesheet.

8.WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutMr.Jobs’ideaofDRMisNOTTRUE?

A.DRMplacesrestrictionsonconsumer’choiceofdigitalmusicproductsavailable.

B.DRMcomplesiTunesbuyerstoswitchtoadevicemadebySonyorMicrosoft.

C.DRMconstitutesabarrierforpotentialconsumerstoenterdigitalmusicmarkets.

D.DRMhindersdevelopmentofmorestoresandplayersandtechnicalinnovation.

9.Theword“unfazed”inline3ofparagraphE,means___________.

A.refused

B.welcomed

C.notbothered

D.notwellreceived

10.WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUEifDRMwasscapped?

A.Sonywouldgainthemostprofit.

B.Morecustomerswouldbe“lockedin”.

C.Asuddenincreaseinpiracywouldoccur.

D.Online-musicsaleswouldprobablydecrease.

Questions11-14

Completethenotesbelow.

ChooseNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSfromReadingPassage1foreachanswer.

Writeyouranswersinboxes11-14onyouranswersheet.

Mr.SteveJobs,thebossofApple,explainsthereasonwhyheusedtodefendDRM,sayingthatthecompanywasforcedtodoso:therecordcompanieswouldmaketheirmusicaccessibleto…11...onlyiftheyagreedtoprotectitusingDRM;theycanstill…12…iftheDRMsystemiscompromised.HealsoprovidesthereasonwhyAppledidnotlicenseFairPlaytoothers:thecompanyreliesonthemto…13….ButnowhechangeshismindwithapossibleexpectationthatEurope’sregulatorswouldnottroublehimanymoreinthefuture.Heproposesthatthosewhoareunsatisfactorywiththecurrentsituationindigitalmusicmarketshould…14…towardspersuadethemusiccompaniestoselltheirmusicDRM-free.

newweapontofightcancer

1.Britishscientistsarepreparingtolaunchtrialsofaradicalnewwaytofightcancer,whichkillstumoursbyinfectingthemwithviruseslikethecommoncold.

2.Ifsuccessful,virustherapycouldeventuallyformathirdpillaralongsideradiotherapyandchemotherapyinthestandardarsenalagainstcancer,whileavoidingsomeofthedebilitatingside-effects.

3.LeonardSeymour,aprofessorofgenetherapyatOxfordUniversity,whohasbeenworkingonthevirustherapywithcolleaguesinLondonandtheUS,willleadthetrialslaterthisyear.CancerResearchUKsaidyesterdaythatitwasexcitedbythepotentialofProfSeymour’spioneeringtechniques.

4.Oneofthecountry’sleadinggeneticists,ProfSeymourhasbeenworkingwithvirusesthatkillcancercellsdirectly,whileavoidingharmtohealthytissue."Inprinciple,you’vegotsomethingwhichcouldbemanytimesmoreeffectivethanregularchemotherapy,"hesaid.

5.Cancer-killingvirusesexploitthefactthatcancercellssuppressthebody’slocalimmunesystem."Ifacancerdoesn’tdothat,theimmunesystemwipesitout.Ifyoucangetavirusintoatumour,virusesfindthemaverygoodplacetobebecausethere’snoimmunesystemtostopthemreplicating.Youcanregarditasthecancer’sAchilles’heel."

6.Onlyasmallamountofthevirusneedstogettothecancer."Theyreplicate,yougetamillioncopiesineachcellandthecellburstsandtheyinfectthetumourcellsadjacentandrepeattheprocess,"saidProfSeymour.

7.Preliminaryresearchonmiceshowsthatthevirusesworkwellontumoursresistanttostandardcancerdrugs."It’saninterestingpossibilitythattheymayhaveanadvantageinkillingdrug-resistanttumours,whichcouldbequitedifferenttoanythingwe’vehadbefore."

8.Researchershaveknownforsometimethatvirusescankilltumourcellsandsomeaspectsoftheworkhavealreadybeenpublishedinscientificjournals.Americanscientistshavepreviouslyinjectedvirusesdirectlyintotumoursbutthistechniquewillnotworkifthecancerisinaccessibleorhasspreadthroughoutthebody.

9.ProfSeymour’sinnovativesolutionistomaskthevirusfromthebody’simmunesystem,effectivelyallowingthevirusestodowhatchemotherapydrugsdo-spreadthroughthebloodandreachtumourswherevertheyare.Thebighurdlehasalwaysbeentofindawaytodelivervirusestotumoursviathebloodstreamwithoutthebody’simmunesystemdestroyingthemontheway.

10."Whatwe’vedoneismakechemicalmodificationstothevirustoputapolymercoataroundit-it’sastealthviruswhenyouinjectit,"hesaid.

11.Afterthestealthvirusinfectsthetumour,itreplicates,butthecopiesdonothavethechemicalmodifications.Iftheyescapefromthetumour,thecopieswillbequicklyrecognisedandmoppedupbythebody’simmunesystem.

12.Thetherapywouldbeespeciallyusefulforsecondarycancers,calledmetastases,whichsometimesspreadaroundthebodyafterthefirsttumourappears."There’sanawfulstatisticofpatientsinthewest...withmalignantcancers;75%ofthemgoontodiefrommetastases,"saidProfSeymour.

13.Twovirusesarelikelytobeexaminedinthefirstclinicaltrials:adenovirus,whichnormallycausesacold-likeillness,andvaccinia,whichcausescowpoxandisalsousedinthevaccineagainstsmallpox.Forsafetyreasons,bothwillbedisabledtomakethemlesspathogenicinthetrial,butProfSeymoursaidheeventuallyhopestousenaturalviruses.

14.Thefirsttrialswilluseuncoatedadenovirusandvacciniaandwillbedeliveredlocallytolivertumours,inordertoestablishwhetherthetreatmentissafeinhumansandwhatdoseofviruswillbeneeded.Severalmoreyearsoftrialswillbeneeded,eventuallyalsoonthepolymer-coatedviruses,beforethetherapycanbeconsideredforuseintheNHS.Thoughtheapproachwillbeexaminedatfirstforcancersthatdonotrespondtoconventionaltreatments,ProfSeymourhopesthatonedayitmightbeappliedtoallcancers.

Questions1-6

Dothefollowingstatementsagreewiththeinformationgiveninthereadingpassage?Forquestions1-6write

TRUEifthestatementagreeswiththeinformation

FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheinformation

NOTGIVENifthereisnoinformationonthisinthepassage

1.Virustherapy,ifsuccessful,hasanadvantageineliminatingside-effects.

2.CancerResearchUKisquitehopefulaboutProfessorSeymour’sworkonthevirustherapy.

3.Viruscankillcancercellsandstopthemfromgrowingagain.

4.Cancer’sAchilles’heelreferstothefactthatvirusmaystaysafelyinatumorandreplicate.

5.Toinfectthecancercells,agooddealofvirusesshouldbeinjectedintothetumor.

6.Researchesonanimalsindicatethatviruscouldbeusedasanewwaytotreatdrug-resistanttumors.

Question7-9

Basedonthereadingpassage,choosetheappropriateletterfromA-Dforeachanswer.

7.Informationaboutresearchesonviruseskillingtumorcellscanbefound

(A)onTV

(B)inmagazines

(C)oninternet

(D)innewspapers

8.Totreattumorsspreadingoutinbody,researcherstryto

(A)changethebody’immunesystem

(B)injectchemotherapydrugsintobloodstream.

(C)increasetheamountofinjection

(D)disguisethevirusesonthewaytotumors.

9.Whenthechemicalmodifiedvirusintumorreplicates,thecopies

(A)willsoonescapefromthetumorandspreadout.

(B)willbewipedoutbythebody’simmunesystem.

(C)willbeimmediatelyrecognizedbytheresearchers.

(D)willeventuallystopthetumorfromspreadingout.

Questions10-13

Completethesentencesbelow.Chooseyouranswersfromthelistofwords.Youcanonlyuseeachwordonce.

NBTherearemorewordsinthelistthanspacessoyouwillnotusethemall.

Inthefirstclinicaltrials,scientistswilltryto……10……adenovirusandvaccinia,soboththeviruseswillbelesspathogenicthanthe……11…….Theseuncoatedviruseswillbeapplieddirectlytocertainareastoconfirmsafetyonhumanbeingsandtheright……12……needed.Theexperimentswillfirstlybe……13……tothetreatmentofcertaincancers

HowaFrenchmanisrevivingMcDonald’sinEurope

A.WhenDenisHennequintookoverastheEuropeanbossofMcDonald’sinJanuary2004,theworld’sbiggestrestaurantchainwasshowingsignsofrecoveryinAmericaandAustralia,butsalesinEuropeweresluggishordeclining.OneexceptionwasFrance,whereMrHennequinhaddoneasterlingjobasheadofthegroup’sFrenchsubsidiarytosellmoreBigMacstohiscompatriots.Histaskwastoreplicatethissuccessinall41oftheEuropeancountrieswhereanti-globalisers’favouriteenemyoperates.

B.SofarMrHennequinisdoingwell.LastyearEuropeansalesincreasedby5.8%andthenumberofcustomersby3.4%,thebestannualresultsinnearly15years.Europeaccountedfor36%ofthegroup’sprofitsandfor28%ofitssales.DecemberwasanespeciallygoodmonthascustomerstooktoseasonalmenuofferingsinFranceandBritain,andtoapromotioninGermanybasedonthegameofMonopoly.

C.MrHennequin’srecipeforrevivalistobemoreopenabouthiscompany’soperations,tobe“locallyrelevant”,andtoimprovetheexperienceofvisitinghis6,400restaurants.McDonald’sisblamedformakingpeoplefat,exploitingworkers,treatinganimalscruelly,pollutingtheenvironmentandsimplyforbeingAmerican.MrHennequinsayshewantstoengageinadialoguewiththepublictoaddresstheseconcerns.

D.Heintroduced“opendoor”visitordaysineachcountrywhichbecamehugelypopular.InPolandalonesome50,000visitorscametoMcDonald’sthroughthevisitors’programmelastyear.TheNutritionInformationInitiative,launchedlastyear,putdetailedlabelsonMcDonald’spackagingwithdataoncalories,protein,fat,carbohydratesandsaltcontent.Thedetailsarealsoprintedontray-liners.

E.MrHennequinalsowantspeopletoknowthat“McJobs”,thelow-paidmenialjobsatMcDonald’srestaurants,aremuchbetterthanpeoplethink.Butsomeofhiseffortshavebackfired:lastyearhesparkedacontroversywiththeintroductionofa“McPassport”thatallowsMcDonald’semployeestoworkanywhereintheEuropeanUnion.PoliticiansaccusedthefirmofaploytomakecheaplabourfromeasternEuropemoreeasilyavailabletoMcDonald’smanagersacrossthecontinent.

F.Tostayintouchwithlocalneedsandpreferences,McDonald’semployslocalbossesasmuchaspossible.ARussianisrunningMcDonald’sinRussia,thoughaSerbisinchargeofGermany.Thegroupbuysmainlyfromlocalsuppliers.Four-fifthsofitssuppliesinFrancecomefromlocalfarmers,forexample.(SomeoftheFrenchfarmerswhocampaignedagainstthecompanyinthelate1990ssubsequentlydiscoveredthatitwas,infact,buyingtheirproduce.)AndithirescelebritiessuchasHeidiKlum,aGermanmodel,aslocalbrandambassadors.

G.InhispreviousjobMrHennequinestablisheda“designstudio”inFrancetospruceuphiscompany’sdrabrestaurantsandadapttheinteriortolocaltastes.ThestudioisnowmastermindingimprovementseverywhereinEurope.Healsosetupa“foodstudio”,wherecooksdevisenewrecipesinresponsetolocaltrends.

H.GivenFrance’sreputationasthemostanti-AmericancountryinEurope,itseemsoddthatMcDonald’srevivalinEuropeisbeingledbyaFrenchman,usingideascookedupintheFrenchmarket.ButFranceisinfactthecompany’smostprofitablemarketafterAmerica.ThemarketwhereMcDonald’sisweakestinEuropeisnotFrance,butBritain.

I.“FixingBritainshouldbehispriority,”saysDavidPalmer,arestaurantanalystatUBS.Almosttwo-thirdsofthe1,214McDonald’srestaurantsinBritainarecompany-owned,comparedwith40%inEuropeand15%inAmerica.Thecompanysuffersfromthevolatilityofsalesatitsownrestaurants,butcanrelyonsteadyincomefromfranchisees.Soitshouldsellasmanyunderperformingoutletsaspossible,saysMrPalmer.

J.M.MarkWiltamuth,ananalystatMorganStanley,estimatesthatEuropeancompany-ownedrestaurants’marginswillincreaseslightlyto16.4%in2007.Thisisstilllessthaninthelate1990sandbelowAmerica’s18-19%today.ButitismuchbetterthanbeforeMrHennequin’sreign.HeisalreadybeingtippedasthefirstEuropeancandidateforthegroup’stopjobinIllinois.NobodywouldcallthataMcJob.

NotestoReadingPassage1

1.sterling高质量的

e.g.Hehasmanysterlingqualities.他身上有许多优秀的品质。

2.menial不体面的,乏味的(工作、职业)

3.spruceup打扮整齐、漂亮、装饰

4.mastermind指挥、谋划(一个计划或活动)

e.g.Thepoliceknowwhomastermindedtherobbery.警察知道是谁策划了那次抢劫。

5.underperform表现不佳表现出低于标准的工作水平、企业出现亏本

Questions1-6

DothefollowingstatementsreflecttheclaimsofthewriterinReadingPassage1?

WriteyouranswerinBoxes1-6onyouranswersheet.

TRUEifthestatementreflectstheclaimsofthewriter

FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheclaimsofthewriter

NOTGIVENifitisimpossibletosaywhatthewriterthinksaboutthis

1.McDonaldwasshowingthesignofrecoveryinallEuropeancountriesexceptFranceafterDenisHennequintookofficeasthebossofEuro-markets.

2.Startingfromlastyear,detailedlabelsareputonMcDonald’spackaginganddetailedinformationisalsoprintedontray-liners.

3.Franceissaidtobethemostanti-AmericancountryinEurope,buttheideasofthe“opendoor”visitingdaysand“McPassport”areinventedintheFrenchmarket.

4.BritainpossessestheweakestMcDonaldmarketamongEuropeancountriesandapproximately1214McDonald’srestaurantsarecompany-owned.

5.AccordingtoDavidPalmer,arestaurantanalystatUBS,DavidHennequinshouldtreattheproblemaboutMcDonaldinBritainasthemostimportantthing.

6.DavidPalmersuggestedthatthemanagementofMcDonalodinItalyshouldsellasmanyitsoutletswhichlosemoneyinbusinessaspossibleforrevival.

Questions7-10

ChoosetheappropriatelettersA-Dandwritetheminboxes7-10onyouranswesheet.

7.Theword“sterling”inline3ofParagraphAmeans__________.

A.difficult

B.menial

C.terrible

D.excellent

8.WhichofthefollowingstatementsontheaccusationofMacDonaldisNOTTRUE?

A.Ittendstomakepeoplefat.

B.Itsoperationsareveryvague.

C.Ittendstoexploitworkers.

D.Ittendstotreatanimalscruelly.

9.WhichofthefollowingmeasurestakenbyDenisHennequinproducedundesiredresult?

A.“FoodStudio”scheme.

B.“OpenDoor”visitordays.

C.The“McPassport”scheme.

D.TheNutritionInformationInitiative.

10.WhatdidDenisHennequindosoastorespondtolocaltrends?

A.setupa“FoodStudio”.

B.establisheda“DesignStudio”.

C.hiredcelebritiesaslocalbrandambassadors.

D.employedlocalbossesasmuchaspossible.

Questions11-14

Completeeachofthefollowingstatements(Questions11-14)withwordsornumbertakenfromReadingPassage1.

WriteNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSforeachanswer.

Writeyouranswersinboxes11-14onyouranswersheet.

11.AfterJanuary2004,McDonaldwasmakingimprovementfollowingaperiodofslumpinAmericaandAustralia,butsalesinEuropewere………………………….

12.BusinessofMcDonaldinFranceandBritainwasparticularlygoodinDecembersincecustomerstookto……………………………..

13.Comparedwithothercountries,FranceisMcDonald’s……………………….nexttoAmerica.

14.…………………….ofMcDonald’srestaurantsinAmericaarecompanied–ownedandthefigureismuchlowerthanthatinBritain.

1There'sadimmerswitchinsidethesunthatcausesitsbrightnesstoriseandfallontimescalesofaround100,000years-exactlythesameperiodasbetweeniceagesonEarth.Sosaysaphysicistwhohascreatedacomputermodelofourstar'score.

2RobertEhrlichofGeorgeMasonUniversityinFairfax,Virginia,modelledtheeffectoftemperaturefluctuationsinthesun'sinterior.Accordingtothestandardview,thetemperatureofthesun'scoreisheldconstantbytheopposingpressuresofgravityandnuclearfusion.However,Ehrlichbelievedthatslightvariationsshouldbepossible.

3HetookashisstartingpointtheworkofAttilaGrandpierreoftheKonkolyObservatoryoftheHungarianAcademyofSciences.In2005,Grandpierreandacollaborator,Gáborágoston,calculatedthatmagneticfieldsinthesun'scorecouldproducesmallinstabilitiesinthesolarplasma.Theseinstabilitieswouldinducelocalisedoscillationsintemperature.

4Ehrlich'smodelshowsthatwhilstmostoftheseoscillationscanceleachotherout,somereinforceoneanotherandbecomelong-livedtemperaturevariations.Thefavouredfrequenciesallowthesun'scoretemperaturetooscillatearounditsaveragetemperatureof13.6millionkelvinincycleslastingeither100,000or41,000years.Ehrlichsaysthatrandominteractionswithinthesun'smagneticfieldcouldflipthefluctuationsfromonecyclelengthtotheother.

5ThesetwotimescalesareinstantlyrecognisabletoanyonefamiliarwithEarth'siceages:forthepastmillionyears,iceageshaveoccurredroughlyevery100,000years.Beforethat,theyoccurredroughlyevery41,000years.

6MostscientistsbelievethattheiceagesaretheresultofsubtlechangesinEarth'sorbit,knownastheMilankovitchcycles.OnesuchcycledescribesthewayEarth'sorbitgraduallychangesshapefromacircletoaslightellipseandbackagainroughlyevery100,000years.ThetheorysaysthisalterstheamountofsolarradiationthatEarthreceives,triggeringtheiceages.However,apersistentproblemwiththistheoryhasbeenitsinabilitytoexplainwhytheiceageschangedfrequencyamillionyearsago.

7"InMilankovitch,thereiscertainlynogoodideawhythefrequencyshouldchangefromonetoanother,"saysNeilEdwards,aclimatologistattheOpenUniversityinMiltonKeynes,UK.NoristhetransitionproblemtheonlyonetheMilankovitchtheoryfaces.EhrlichandothercriticsclaimthatthetemperaturevariationscausedbyMilankovitchcyclesaresimplynotbigenoughtodriveiceages.

8However,EdwardsbelievesthesmallchangesinsolarheatingproducedbyMilankovitchcyclesarethenamplifiedbyfeedbackmechanismsonEarth.Forexample,ifseaicebeginstoformbecauseofaslightcooling,carbondioxidethatwouldotherwisehavefounditswayintotheatmosphereaspartofthecarboncycleislockedintotheice.ThatweakensthegreenhouseeffectandEarthgrowsevencolder.

9AccordingtoEdwards,thereisnolackofsuchmechanisms."Ifyouaddtheireffectstogether,thereismorethanenoughfeedbacktomakeMilankovitchwork,"hesays."Theproblemnowisidentifyingwhichmechanismsareatwork."ThisiswhyscientistslikeEdwardsarenotyetreadytogiveuponthecurrenttheory."Milankovitchcyclesgiveusiceagesroughlywhenweobservethemtohappen.Wecancalculatewhereweareinthecycleandcompareitwithobservation,"hesays."Ican'tseeanywayoftesting[Ehrlich's]ideatoseewhereweareinthetemperatureoscillation."

10Ehrlichconcedesthis."Ifthereisawaytotestthistheoryonthesun,Ican'tthinkofonethatispractical,"hesays.That'sbecausevariationover41,000to100,000yearsistoogradualtobeobserved.However,theremaybeawaytotestitinotherstars:reddwarfs.Theircoresaremuchsmallerthanthatofthesun,andsoEhrlichbelievesthattheoscillationperiodscouldbeshortenoughtobeobserved.Hehasyettocalculatethepreciseperiodortheextentofvariationinbrightnesstobeexpected.

11NigelWeiss,asolarphysicistattheUniversityofCambridge,isfarfromconvinced.HedescribesEhrlich'sclaimsas"utterlyimplausible".EhrlichcountersthatWeiss'sopinionisbasedonthestandardsolarmodel,whichfailstotakeintoaccountthemagneticinstabilitiesthatcausethetemperaturefluctuations.

Questions1-4

CompleteeachofthefollowingstatementswithOneorTwonamesofthescientistsfromtheboxbelow.

WritetheappropriatelettersA-Einboxes1-4onyouranswersheet.

A.AttilaGrandpierre

B.Gáborágoston

C.NeilEdwards

D.NigelWeiss

E.RobertEhrlich

1....claimsthereadimmerswitchinsidethesunthatcausesitsbrightnesstoriseandfallinperiodsaslongasthosebetweeniceagesonEarth.

2....calculatedthattheinternalsolarmagneticfieldscouldproduceinstabilitiesinthesolarplasma.

3....holdsthatMilankovitchcyclescaninducechangesinsolarheatingonEarthandthechangesareamplifiedonEarth.

4....doesn'tbelieveinEhrlich'sviewpointsatall.

Questions5-9

Dothefollowingstatementsagreewiththeinformationgiveninthereadingpassage?

Inboxes5-9onyouranswersheetwrite

TRUEifthestatementistrueaccordingtothepassage

FALSEifthestatementisfalseaccordingtothepassage

NOTGIVENiftheinformationisnotgiveninthepassage

5.Theiceageschangedfrequencyfrom100,000to41,000yearsamillionyearsago.

6.ThesoleproblemthattheMilankovitchtheorycannotsolveistoexplainwhytheiceagefrequencyshouldshiftfromonetoanother.

7.Carbondioxidecanbelockedartificiallyintoseaicetoeliminatethegreenhouseeffect.

8.SomescientistsarenotreadytogiveuptheMilankovitchtheorythoughtheyhaven'tfiguredoutwhichmechanismsamplifythechangesinsolarheating.

9.BothEdwardsandEhrlichbelievethatthereisnopracticalwaytotestwhenthesolartemperatureoscillationbeginsandwhenends.

Questions10-14

Completethenotesbelow.

ChooseonesuitablewordfromtheReadingPassageaboveforeachanswer.

Writeyouranswersinboxes10-14onyouranswersheet.

Thestandardviewassumesthattheopposingpressuresofgravityandnuclearfusionsholdthetemperature...10...inthesun'sinterior,buttheslightchangesintheearth's...11...alterthetemperatureontheearthandcauseiceagesevery100,000years.ABritishscientist,however,challengesthisviewbyclaimingthattheinternalsolarmagnetic...12...caninducethetemperatureoscillationsinthesun'sinterior.Thesun'scoretemperatureoscillatesarounditsaveragetemperaturein...13...lastingeither100,000or41,000years.Andthe...14...interactionswithinthesun'smagneticfieldcouldflipthefluctuationsfromonecyclelengthtotheother,whichexplainswhytheiceageschangedfrequencyamillionyearsago.

FelicityLawrence

ThursdayDecember28,2006

TheGuardian

1.ConsumersaretobepresentedwithtworivalnewyearadvertisingcampaignsastheFoodStandardsAgencygoespublicinitsbattlewiththeindustryoverthelabellingofunhealthyfoods.

2.TheGuardianhaslearnedthattheFSAwilllaunchaseriesof10-secondtelevisionadvertsinJanuarytellingshoppershowtofollowared,amberandgreentrafficlightlabellingsystemonthefrontoffoodpacks,whichisdesignedtotackleBritain’sobesityepidemic.

3.Thecampaignisadirectresponsetoaconcertedattemptbyleadingfoodmanufacturersandretailers,includingKellogg’sandTesco,toderailthesystem.Theindustryfearsthattrafficlightswoulddemoniseentirecategoriesoffoodsandcouldseriouslydamagethemarketforthosethatarefatty,saltyorhighinsugar.

4.TheUKmarketforbreakfastcerealsisworth£1.27bnayearandthemanufacturersfearitwillbeseverelydentedifredlightlabelsareputonpackagingdrawingattentiontothefactthatthemajorityarehighinsaltand/orsugar.

5.Theindustryisplanningamajormarketingcampaignforacompetinglabellingsystemwhichavoidscolour-codinginfavourofinformationaboutthepercentageof"guidelinedailyamounts"(GDAs)offat,saltandsugarcontainedintheirproducts.

6.Thebattleforthenation’sdietcomesasnewrulesontelevisionadvertisingcomeintoforceinJanuarywhichwillbaradvertsforunhealthyfoodsfromcommercialbreaksduringprogrammesaimedatchildren.SourcesattheTVregulatorsarebracedforalegalchallengefromtheindustryandhavedescribedthelobbyingeffortstoblockanynewadbanorcolour-codedlabellingas"themostferociouswe’veeverexperienced".

7.Ofcom’schiefexecutive,EdRichards,said:"Wearepreparedtofaceuptoanylegalactionfromtheindustry,butweverymuchhopeitwillnotbenecessary."TheFSAsaiditwasexpectinganonslaughtfromtheindustryinJanuary.SeniorFSAofficialssaidthemanufacturers’effortstoundermineitsproposalsonlabellingcouldthreatentheagency’scredibility.

8.TerrenceCollis,FSAdirectorofcommunications,dismissedclaimsthattheproposalswerenotbasedonscience."WehavesomeofthemostrespectedscientistsinEurope,bothwithintheFSAandinourindependentadvisorycommittees.ItisunjustifiedandnonsensicaltoattacktheFSA’sscientificreputationandtotrytoundermineitscredibility."

9.TheFSAisunderstoodtohavebriefeditsadagency,United,beforeChristmas,andwillaimtoairadsthatare"non-confrontational,humorousandfactual"asacounterweighttoindustry’seffortsaboutthesametime.Theagency,however,willhaveatinyfractionofthebudgetavailabletotheindustry.

10.GavinNeath,chairmanofUnileverUKandpresidentoftheFoodandDrinkFederation,hassaidthattheindustryhasmadeenormousprogressbutcouldnotacceptred"stop"signsonitsfood.

11.AlastairSykes,chiefexecutiveofNestléUK,saidthatundertheFSAproposalsallhiscompany’sconfectioneryandmostofitscerealswouldscoreared."Arewesayingpeopleshouldn’teatconfectionery?We’redrivenbyconsumersandwhattheywant,andmuchofwhatwedohasbeentomakeourproductshealthier,"hesaid.

12.ChrisWermann,directorofcommunicationsatKellogg’s,said:"Inprinciplewecouldneveraccepttrafficlightlabelling."

13.TherivallabellingschemeintroducedbyKellogg’s,Danone,Unilever,Nestlé,KraftandTescoandnowfavouredby21manufacturers,usesanindustry-devisedsystembasedonidentifyingGDAsofkeynutrients.TescosaysithastestedbothtrafficlightsandGDAlabelsinitsstoresandthatthelatterincreasedsalesofhealthierfoods.

14.ButtheFSAsaiditcouldnotlivewiththisGDAsystemalonebecauseitwas"notscientific"oreasyforshopperstounderstandataglance.

Questions1-6

AnswerthequestionsbelowusingNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSfromthepassageforeachanswer.

1.Whenwillinstructionsbegivenonreadingthecolor-codedlabels?

2.Wherecancustomersfindtheredlightlabels?

3.WhatproblemistheFSAtryingtohandlewiththelabelingsystem?

4.Whichproductsellswellbutmaynotbehealthy?

5.Whatinformation,accordingtothemanufacturers,canbelabeledonproducts?

6.Whatcannotbeadvertisedduringchildren’sprogrammes?

Questions7-13

Usetheinformationinthetexttomatchthepeople(listedA-E)withtheopinions(listed7-13)below.Writetheappropriateletter(A-E)forquestions1-7.

NBYoumayuseanylettermorethanonce.

AEdRichard

BTerrenceCollis

CGavinNeath

DAlastairSykes

EChrisWermann

7.Generallywewillnotagreetousetheredlightlabels.

8.ItisunreasonabletodoubtifFSAistrustworthy.

9.Wearetryingtomeetourconsumers’needs.

10.Thefoodindustryhasbeenimprovinggreatly.

11.Thecolor-codedlabelingsystemisscientific.

12.OurproductswillbelabeledunhealthybytheFSA.

13.Wearereadytoconfrontthemanufacturers.

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