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Read the text about career-planning services.
Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps .
For each gap 9– 14, mark one letter (A-H) on your Answer Sheet .
Do not use any letter more than once .
There is an example at the beginning .(0)
Your Career Path Can Lead You Anywhere
We used to be advised to plan our careers. We were told to make a plan during the later stages of our education and continue with it through our working lives.(0)_____ some people still see careers in this way. However, to pursue a single option for life has always been unrealistic.
Planning for a single career assumes that we set out with a full understanding of our likes and dislikes and the employment opportunities open to us. (9)____ For most people this degree of certainty about the future does not exist.
Our initial choice of career path and employer is often based on inadequate knowledge and false perceptions. But with age and experience, we develop new interests and aptitudes and our priorities alter. The structure of the employment market and, indeed of employment itself, is subject to change as both new technologies and new work systems are introduced (10) _____ We must face the uncertainties of a portfolio career.
It is clear from the recent past that we cannot foresee the changes which will affect our working lives. The pace of change is accelerating , as a result of which traditional career plans will be of very limited use. (11)_____ They will need updating to reflect changes in our own interests as well as in the external work environment. Flexible workers already account for about half the workforce. (12)______ We are likely to face periods as contract workers, self-employed freelances, consultants, temps or part-timers.
Many employers encourage staff to write a personal development development (PDP) (13)_____ Although some people use it only to review the skills needed for their job, a PDP could be the nucleus of wider career plan –setting out alternative long-term learning needs and a plan of self-development.
A report issued by the Institute of Employment Studies advises people to enhance their employability by moving from traditional technical skills towards the attainment of a range of transferable skills. (14)_____ Instead, special schemes should be established to encourage people to examine their effectiveness and to consider a wider range of needs.
0 A B C D E F G H
A This dual effect means that the relationship between employers and workers has evolved to such and extent that we can no longer expect a long-term relationship with one employer.
B. It carries an implicit assumption that we ourselves, and the jobs we enter, will change little during our working lives.
C. This growth suggests that a career plan should not be expressed only in terms of full-time employment but should make provision for the possibility of becoming one of the.
D this is a summary of one’s personal learning needs and an action plan to meet them.
E Consequently, they must now accommodate a number of objectives and enable us to prepare for each on a contingency basis.
F However, it warns that employers often identify training needs through formal appraisals, which take too narrow a view of development.
G . Such a freelance of consultant would be constantly in demand.
H We were expected to work towards that one clear goal and to consider a career change as a bad thing.
Trouble with Teamwork
Mary Owen examines the role and efficiency of teams
Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples ofwork they have done as members of a successful team are in asstrong a position as those who can point to significant individualachievement. Indeed, too much of the latter may suggest thatthe person concerned is not a 'team player' - one of the moreserious failings in the book of management.
The importance of being a team player is a side effect of the increasing interaction acrossdepartments and functional divides. Instead of pushing reports, paperwork and decisions aroundthe organisation, 'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertisemore carefully targeted at important business issues,' says Steve Gardner, in his book KeyManagement Concepts. He adds, 'Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork.Multinational teams now study policy decisions in the light of their impact on the local market.'
But is teamworking being overdone? 'Some managers are on as many as seven or eightdifferent teams', says Dr Cathy Bandy, a psychologist who recently ran a conference on thesubject. 'They take up so much time that managers can't get on with core tasks.' Forming teamsand having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose. There isalso the danger of an unhealthy desire to keep the team going after the work has been done. 'People feel the need to belong, and team membership can provide a kind of psychologicalsupport.'
The idea behind teamworking is that, when the right group of people is brought together, a'force' develops which is greater than the sum of their individual talents. This is often true in sport,where good players can reach unexpected heights as members of an international team.However,few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success orfailure, as winning a match.
'In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team isthe right way of approaching it', says Steve Gardner. 'Unfortunately, people focus instead on whothe members of the team should be and what roles they are to play' Dr Bandy agrees. 'There isalways a danger that teams can turn into committees,' she says. 'In a lot of situations, one or twoindividuals would be much more effective.'
So what makes a successful team? There are some general qualities that have been identified.Steve Gardnerrecommends that in every team there should be someone who is good atresearching ideas and another who is good at shooting down impractical ones. There should bethose who can resolve the tensions that naturally occur in a team and others who are focused ongetting the job done. Also, providing a clear and achievable target at the outset is the best way ofensuring that the team will move on to greater things.
13、 What point does the writer make about teamworking at the beginning of the article?
A It is the most successful form of management.
B It has changed the recruitment procedure in companies.
C Well-run teams still allow individuals to demonstrate their talents.
D Being a team player is now considered an essential management skill.
14 、According to the article, teamwork developed within companies as a response to
A modern office design.
B changing work practices.
C a reduction in administrative tasks.
D the expansion of international business.
15 、In the third paragraph, Dr Bandy suggests that
A many employees do not enjoy working in teams.
B some managers are not very effective team leaders.
C some teams are created unnecessarily.
D few teams are well organised.
16 、According to the writer, teamwork is more effective in the field of sport because the players
A know what they want to achieve.
B are more competitive by nature.
C have more individual talent.
D can be driven by national pride.
17 、Steve Gardner and Dr Bandy agree that when a business team is created people do notpay enough attention to
A the structure of the team.
B alternatives to the team.
C selecting the team members.
D directing the team's activities.
18、 What is Steve Gardner's advice on operating a successful team?
A Maintain a flexible approach to membership.
B Allow personalities to develop within the team.
C Select people who fit naturally into certain roles.
D Make every effort to avoid conflict between members.